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Authors: Muthoni Wangechi Sally, Dr James Rosemary

Abstract: In Kenya, many governmental organizations have increasingly been involved in supporting community projects aimed at improving livelihoods of the community in which they operate. However, community projects in Kenya and in Kieni sub-county have been reported to experience challenges during the implementation. Analysis of datasets in Kieni sub-county indicates that just 60% of the implemented projects are functional. This study therefore sought to assess the influence of community participation on the implementation of community based projects in Kenya with a particular focus on Kieni Sub-County. The study sought to determine the effect of community awareness, community consultation, monitoring and evaluation and capacity building on the implementation of community based organisation projects Kieni Sub-County. This research study used a descriptive research design. The target population of this study was 17 project managers, 17 project coordinators and 102 project committee members in 17 community based projects in Kieni Sub-County. The study used a census to select the project managers and project coordinator. In addition, simple random sampling was used to select 50% of the committee members. The study made use of primary data, which was obtained by use of semi-structured questionnaires. Qualitative data was analysed by use of content analysis presented in a prose form. On the other hand, Quantitative data was analysed by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. In addition, descriptive and inferential statistics was used in this study. The study found that there is a significant positive influence of community awareness, community consultations, monitoring and evaluation and capacity building in implementation of community based projects in Kenya. The study recommends that community leaders should lay enough and reliable communication channels that will be used in informing the public on project matters. The study also recommended that community should be consulted in the implementation of projects as they help in meeting the objectives of the project. 

 Authors: Boru Salad Wato, Rugami Maina, Dr. Muathe Stephen

 Abstract: In recent times, many public sector organizations have been engaging in activities aimed at improving their service delivery to the public. One such activity is the implementation of strategies. However, public organizations portray unsatisfying low performance (only 10 to 30 percent) of intended strategies. The main objective of this study was to investigate influence of drug demand reduction strategy implementation on organizational performance of National Authority for the Campaign against Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The specific objectives of the study was to examine the influence of policies, stakeholders’ involvement, leadership and resources allocation in implementation of drug demand reduction strategy on organizational performance of NACADA. This study used a descriptive survey design. The target population was 102 staff of NACADA in the levels of senior management, middle level management and operation staff. The study used stratified random sampling technique to select 50% of the target population. The sample size of this study was therefore 51 respondents. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Secondary data was obtained from the annual reports of NACADA. Primary data was collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was quantitative as well as qualitative. Collected quantitative data was edited and coded into a statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21) for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (multivariate regression) were used to analyze quantitative data. In descriptive statistics, the study used frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentages. The analyzed data was then presented in tables and figures. On the other hand, qualitative data was analyzed by use of content analysis and results presented in prose. The study concludes that there is a significant positive influence of organization policies, stakeholder’s involvements, leadership commitment and resource allocation in implementation of drug demand reduction strategy on organizational performance of NACADA. The study recommends that policy makers should ensure that there is no duplication of responsibilities among government agencies and also recommends formulation of more policies on management and allocation of resources to enhance implementation of the strategy. The study also recommends further studies on the role of private sector institutions in implementation of drug demand reduction strategy as this would likely lead to new insights and therefore enrich the efforts that have been made in this study. 

 Authors: Nancy Munyeki, Dr. Susan Were

Abstract: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) works to better lives in developing countries through improving the quality and quantity of livestock in Kenya. However, despite its importance to Kenyan farmers and to the national economy, the efficiency of ILRI has room for improvement. This study sought to investigate on the influence of transformational leadership on the performance of project based organizations in Kenya with a case of International Livestock Research Institute. The study also sought to determine the effect of idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation on the performance of project based organizations in Kenya. This study used a descriptive research design. The target population was 111 staff in International Livestock Research Institute. Since the population is small (111) a census will be conducted. This study made use of primary data that was collected by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. The collected quantitative data was edited and coded into a statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21) for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze quantitative data. In descriptive statistics, the study used frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentages. The analyzed data was then presented in tables and figures. On the other hand, thematic content analysis was used to qualitative data and the results were presented in form of a prose. Further, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to establish the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study established that idealized influence has a positive and significant influence on the performance of project based organizations (β1=0.306, p-value=0.000). The study also found that inspirational motivation has a positive and significant influence on the performance of project based organizations (β2=0.182, p-value=0.034). The study revealed that individual consideration has a positive and significant influence on the performance of project based organizations (β3=0.208, p-value=0.020). The study further established that intellectual stimulation has a positive and significant influence on the performance of project based organizations (β4=0.455, p-value=0.000). This study recommends that the management should focus on acknowledging and attending to the needs of employees. In addition, it should develop a coaching and mentorship program to improve the skills of the staff, which can subsequently influence their productivity and hence performance.  

 Authors: Duncan Ngugi Njeri, Dr. Susan Were

Abstract: There have been many advances in the field of project management and especially in the NGO sector. Nevertheless, many NGO projects across the world still fail to perform and deliver expected benefits. In Kenya, about 30% of non-governmental organizations experience failure in their projects and may fail to achieve targets and objectives due to lack of top management support, culture, schedule and commitment. On this basis, this study sought to establish the determinants of project performance in NGOs in Kenya. Further, the study sought to establish the influence of top management support, project culture, project scheduling and project team commitment on project performance in NGOs in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive research design with a target population of 304 respondents comprising of senior managers, branch managers, field officers and accountants respectively. The study further used stratified random sampling method to draw 105 respondents from each stratum in the target population. The sample size selected was at least 30% of the population. This study made use of primary data that was collected by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. The reliability of the questionnaires was measured statistically by measuring the internal consistency. Internal consistency techniques were measured by use of Cronbach’s Alpha. A Cronbach’s Alpha of above 0.7 was considered acceptable. A pilot test was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the research instrument. The collected data was then edited, coded and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Further, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to establish the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study found that top management support has a significant influence on project performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya (β1=0.811, p-value=0.000). The study also established that project culture has a significant influence on project performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya (β2=0.796, p-value=0.000). The study revealed that project scheduling has a significant influence on the influence on project performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. (β3=0.789, p-value=0.015). The study also found that project team commitment has a significant influence on the influence on project performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya (β1=0.781, p-value=0.000). The study recommends that the top management should realize the importance of delegating responsibility to the project manager and teams, organizational policies should be geared towards supporting project performance and project team support, the organization should consider using compressed and alternative project schedules to motivate project teams to enhance project performance and there should be better composition of project teams, competency and level of responsibility to guarantee success of projects.

Authors: Stephen Watenga Kariuki, Dr. Gladys Rotich

 Abstract: Managing redundant stock is critical in enhancing cost reduction. This study explored the role of stores management in reduction of redundant stock and utilized contingency, coordination, inventory theories. A census research design and stratified random sampling were adopted with a target population of 60 participants. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Response rate was 86.7%, majority (63.5%) was male, 38.5% were aged between 31-40 years; 55.8% attained undergraduate degrees. Moreover, 48.1% worked for 3-5 years, 13.5% were executive managers, 26.9% middle level managers, 30.8% supervisors and 28.8% were junior staff. Poor material management and policies causes stock redundancy (mean = 4.40), efficient issue of materials in and out of store was prioritized (mean = 4.42), creation of efficient store control policies reduces redundant stock (mean = 4.08), supply chain contracts are well implemented when supply chain coordination exists (Mean=4.15). The study concluded that stores management, poor material management and policies influences redundant stock. Supply chain contracts are well implemented when supply chain coordination exists. The study recommends that poor material management and organizational policies should be well addressed. Supply chain contracts should support forecasting. Organizations should ensure there are effective inventory management policies. 

 Authors: Gachungi Rahab Wambui, Dr. Mugambi Mercy

Abstract: The number of public road construction projects has been increasing in Kenya from one period to another. However, completion of projects within the cost budget allocated is always a challenge. Due to inadequacy of financial resources that exist in Kenya, cost overrun posts a major challenge in the completion of construction projects in Kenya. The purpose of undertaking this research study was to investigate on the influence of information and communication technology application on management of road projects in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to assess how electronic communication, electronic records management, supply chain integration and electronic procurement management application on the management of road projects in Kenya. A descriptive explanatory research design was adopted. The population of study included all staff in the headquarters of KeNHA. There are114 staff working in the headquarters of KeNHA. The sample size was determined by the Slovin's Formula. Stratified random sampling was adopted in the selection of a sample size of 88 staff. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data in this study was obtained by use of interview guides and administering questionnaires; the questionnaire comprised of unstructured and structured questions. Secondary data was obtained from KENHA reports for the last five years. Quantitative data was obtained and analysis was done by use of descriptive and inferential statistics such as correlation and regression analysis. This was achieved by using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). Descriptive statistics included percentages, frequency distribution, standard deviation and means. The data obtained was presented by use of graphs tables. The study found that electronic communication has a significant influence on the management of road projects in KeNHA (β1=0.676, p-value=0.000). Also, the study established that electronic records management has an insignificant influence on the management of road projects in KENHA (β2=0.040, p-value=0.830). Further, the study established that supply chain integration has a significant influence on the management of road projects in KeNHA (β3=0.212, p-value=0.000). In addition, the study revealed that electronic procurement has a significant influence on the management of road projects in in KeNHA (β4=0.431, p-value 0.000). The study recommends that KeNHA should develop strategies to improve on stability of network which can be done by establishment .of other communication tools. The study also recommends that KeNHA should develop strategies on public procurement record keeping so as improve on electronic records management.

Authors: Matenzawa Beatrice Wanza, Dr. Were Susan

Abstract: Banks nowadays are faced with enormous challenges such as very fierce competition among the financial institutions, knowledgeable customers who are very demanding, thus calling for the development of new products and delivery of more varied and complex delivery channels. Faced with such challenges, banks have no other choice other than to modernize both their operating models and technology components if they are expecting any growth. If they do not do so, they will have failed in terms of satisfying customers, maintaining revenues and profits as well as pleasing the shareholders. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges facing the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects in Kenya. The study specific objective was to examine and evaluate how project planning, resource management, stakeholders’ participation and communication systems affect the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The target population was 110 respondents comprising of both the clearing and IT departments staff from selected commercial banks in Nairobi. A purposive sampling method was used to select the clearing and IT staff as they were considered to have the required information to meet the objectives of the study. Questionnaires were used in data collection, and they were administered via drop and pick method. Collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics aided by Statistical Package (SPSS version 21), and the presentation of the results was in the form of frequency tables, pie charts, percentages and bar charts. The study found that communication systems had a positive and significant influence on the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects (β1=0.465, p-value=0.000). In addition, the study found that stakeholder participation has a positive and significant influence on the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects (β2=0.385, p-value=0.000). The study also found that resource management has a positive and significant influence on the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects (β3=0.218, p-value=0.010). Lastly the study found that project planning has a positive and significant influence on the implementation of clearing system upgrade projects (β4=0.506, p-value=0.000). Based on the findings, the study recommends that since resources are vital to projects of such nature, the management should make sure there are enough and well-trained personnel to carry on such projects. Also planning should be done before the commencement of such projects so that each and every one is briefed of the scope, objectives, and strategies to be employed during the project. In conclusion, further studies are called for as the study did not encompass all the banks in Kenya and feedback should be sought from other stakeholders such as customers and the project implementers’ such as Kenya Bankers Association and Central Bank of Kenya.  

Authors: Nyagah Joyce Njoki, Dr. Were Susan

Abstract: Energy recovered from waste can be used for generation of heat and power (electricity). The energy generation option selected depended on potential end users that utilized heat and power available. Despite the importance of renewable energy generation in promotion of country’s economic development and environment conservation, most previous projects on creation of renewable electrical energy projects have failed. The main objective of the study was to determine the influence of food waste practice on creation of renewable electrical energy projects, the study also sought to understand which of the factors have the most impact. The factors identified were project expertise, stakeholder participation, government policies, resources and leadership styles. The study adopted descriptive research design of which target population was private investors in Nairobi Solid Waste Sector. The study applied purposive sampling technique to select a sample size of 100 respondents. Questionnaires were used as the main data collection instruments and a pilot study was conducted to pre-test questionnaires for reliability. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the gathered data and the results were presented on tables and charts. The study found out that project expertise, stakeholder’s participation, government policies, resources and leadership styles all influence the creation of renewable electrical energy projects. The study drew conclusion that government policies is the independent variable that influences most the dependent variable creation of renewable electrical energy projects, followed by leadership styles, stakeholders’ participation and lastly project expertise. The study recommends that in order to successfully support the creation of renewable electrical energy projects; firms implementing renewable electrical energy projects should acquire professionally trained experts and also train their staff on renewable energy generation best practices. The firms can also benchmark project expertise from renewable energy firms in developed nations. All stake holders involved in renewable energy projects should be full engaged in all matters concerning project implementation. It was also recommended that the government should provide guideline on how to manage creation of electrical energy projects. The project managers and project team leaders should employ democratic or participative leadership styles style in order to facilitate in coaching and development of project team members.

Authors: Mwaniki Caroline Wawira, Dr. Were Susan

Abstract: The study main objective was to find out the effects of project management practices on Community Development. The study specific objectives included; to evaluate how Risk management affects community development; to find out how Quality management affects community development; to evaluate how Stakeholder participation affects community development and to find out the effects of Cost Management on community development. The study applied a descriptive research design and the population of the study consisted of 385 respondents from the Kibera slum who are currently registered in the temporary UN center located in the area. The study applied stratified random sampling technique to select a sample size of 196 respondents. The study collected primary data through the use of a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the findings through the use of frequencies and percentages. Inferential statistics was applied through the use of regression analysis to determine the statistical significance of independent variables on dependent variable. The findings were presented in tables, figures and charts.  The study found out that the effects of project management practices on community development includes; risk management measures, quality management strategies, level of stakeholders’ participation and the employed cost management measures. The concluded that stakeholder’s participation with the highest coefficient of 0.387 is the major factor that affects community development most, followed by risk management with a coefficient of 0.367 then quality management with a coefficient of 0.330 and lastly cost management with a coefficient of 0.297. The study recommend for the implementation of effective risk avoidance strategies, effective risk mitigation strategies and adoption effective risk transfer strategies; project managers should implement effective quality management systems like Total Quality Management systems and International Standards of Organizations and implementation of effective project cost management methods.

 Authors: Kogi Beatrice Waithera, Dr. Were Susan

 Abstract: In Kenya the number of construction projects is increasing radically. However, it becomes difficult to complete projects in the allocated cost and time. Taking this into consideration, cost overrun is one of the major problems in Kenya construction projects. The main objective of the study was to determine factors affecting cost overruns in construction projects; a case of Kenya National Highways Authority. The study found out how the project schedule affects cost overruns in construction projects; explored the effects of contract management on cost overruns in construction projects; examined how resources affect cost overruns in construction projects and established how government policies influence cost overruns in construction projects. The study adopted a descriptive research with a study population of 150 staff from KENHA offices in Nairobi. The study applied probability sampling design by using a stratified random sampling technique to select a sample size of 110 respondents. The main data collection instrument was the questionnaires which contained both open ended and close ended questions. Descriptive statistics data analysis method was applied to analyze data aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to compute response frequencies, percentage mean and standard deviation results. Finally Linear Regression model was employed to establish the significance of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study findings indicated that project schedule affects cost overruns in construction projects since challenges associated with land acquisition; project scope and project management tools delayed project commencement and completion time. It was noted that contract planning; types of contracts and qualification of contractors led to contract management challenges that led to projects cost overruns. The study concluded that the major factors affecting cost overruns in construction projects in Kenya includes; project schedule; contract management; resources and government policies. The study concluded that project schedule leads to cost overruns in construction projects due to land acquisition problems; project scope challenges and application of poor project management tools by many road contractors. The study recommended that projects management staff should liaise with the government and the affected communities and institutions to speed up the land acquisition process. Project scope should be clearly defined and effective project risk management strategies employed.  The land acquisition process and settlement of legal land disputes in settlement of the affected communities should be shortened through community dialogues and effective undertaking and implementation of environmental impact assessment reports recommendations.

 Authors: Odhiambo Odhiambo Evans, Dr. Were Susan, Wabala Samuel

 Abstract: The project is one of the crucial functions in many organizations. Previous studies have revealed several factors that influence project management performance, but this study focused mainly the Project Life Cycle. This central focus of this study was to investigate the influence of project life cycle on ICT projects in regulated Saccos. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the influence of project identification on the performance of ICT projects, to establish the influence of project planning on the performance of ICT projects, to determine the influence of Project execution on performance of ICT projects and to investigate the influence of project closure on the performance of ICT projects. The study was guided by the theory of change, general systems theory, five-phase project model and six phase project model. The study adopted descriptive research design by carrying out a census on all 45 ICT projects in regulated Saccos within Nairobi. The study used primary and secondary data. Pretested questionnaire that contains closed-ended questions were used in collecting primary data. The collected data was edited for consistency and completeness and then coded and entered into SPSS for analysis.  Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The descriptive results of the study indicate that there is no statistically significant relationship between project initiation (β=0.048, p<0.05) and project closure (β=0.031, p<0.05) with performance of ICT projects. However, the study found that there is statistically significant relationship between project planning (β=0.095, p<0.05) and project execution (β=0.063, p<0.05) and ICT project performance. The study concludes that the institutions within savings and cooperative societies need to focus on critical activities in all the stages of a project lifecycle. The study suggests that future research need to focus on communication and stakeholder management in ICT projects within the regulated savings and credit cooperatives sector.  

 Authors: Wanjohi Mathew Muchiri, Dr. Nganga Kinyanjui, Dr. Kagiri Assumpta

Abstract: In the year 2013, 43% of all Corporate Social Responsibility projects implemented in Kenya were unsustainable. This study therefore sought to assess on the factors influencing the sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility Projects in Kenya with A case of EABL Foundation. The study sought to examine the influence of stakeholders’ involvement, project resources, project leadership and project team on the sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility Projects in Kenya. In the literature review, four theories namely, stakeholder theory, Tuckman's Theory of team development, contingency theory of leadership and theory of constraints. The study was, however, grounded on Tuckman's Theory of team development. A conceptual framework was examined to show the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable while the empirical review was done to identify studies done by other researchers that are relevant to the current study. This study used descriptive research design. The target population for this study was 109 comprising of EABL staff working in the EABL foundation and the community representatives of the beneficiaries of CSR projects in Mwingi, Wote, Nakuru, Limuru, Kikuyu, Thika, Mavoko and Meru. The sampling frame of this study comprised of EABL foundation staff and community representatives in various CSR projects by EABL. This study used a stratified random sampling to select 50% of the target population. The sample size of the study was 55 respondents. This study made use of primary data, which was collected by use of structured questionnaires. A pilot test was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the research instruments. The questionnaires generated quantitative data, which was analyzed by use of arithmetic mean and standard deviation and statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 21) was the software used in analysis. The data was then presented in tables and graphs. From the analysis it was established that stakeholders’ participation had a major influence on sustainability of Corporate Social Responsibility Projects to a great extent with a mean score of 4.01. The study also established that project resources and project leadership have a high influence on sustainability of CSR projects with mean scores of 4.118 and 4.163 respectively. Project team was identified to have the highest influence on CSR projects with a mean score of 4.169. Therefore working together with stakeholders is significant to getting the project beneficiaries satisfied and hence having successful CSR projects. Funding is crucial to the success of CSR projects and failure to ensure funds are available would lead to stalled and unsuccessful projects. Having the right leadership qualities ensures good working relationship with the stakeholders leading to increased collaboration and CSR projects beneficiaries owning the projects. Lastly having right teams in place when undertaking CSR projects increases the possibility of the projects succeeding and ending up with better quality projects and hence resulting with sustainable projects.  

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