International Journal of Social Sciences
- THE ROLE OF THE NEW CONSTITUTION IN INFLUENCING WOMEN TO VIE FOR THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY SEATS: A CASE OF WOMEN ELECTRORATE IN NAIROBI COUNTY
Author: Chitere Emma
Abstract: The March 2013 elections in Kenya opened doors to massive political participation by women for the first time ever. Kenya’s constitution promulgamated in 2010 contains a provision that should radically change political representation for women in this East African country. This study sought to establish the role of the new constitution in influencing women to vie for the National Assembly seats in Nairobi County. The study also sought to establish ways though which the one-third gender rule, gender equality in political parties and equal right of opportunities influence women to vie for the National Assembly in Nairobi County. The target population for this study was all the registered voters in Nairobi County. There are 996,186 registered women voters in Nairobi County which was the study population. The sample size of this study was 100 respondents. Purposive sampling was used to select five key tribes in Kenya (in terms of numbers): Kikuyus, Luos, Kamba, Luhya and Kalenjin. Additionally, purposive sampling was used to select areas dominated by various ethnic groups. The researcher also used stratified random sampling to select 100 women in Nairobi County. The study was used primary data, which was collected by use of questionnaires and Key Informant Interviews guides. Quantitative data collected was analyzed by use descriptive statistics by the help of SPSS (V. 21.0) and presented through frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. This was done by tallying up responses, computing percentages of variations in response as well as describing and interpreting the data in line with the study objectives and assumptions. Data was then presented in tables, figures and charts. In addition, most of the women felt that the one-third gender rule was being followed though a good number of women felt that it was not being followed. Additionally, the study found that one-third gender rule influenced women to vie for political positions in the last general election. It was further established that equal treatment and opportunities between women and men had led to reaping of economic rewards on the basis of merit; improvement of quality of life; and the electoral and political processes to a moderate extent. Lastly, the study found that men and women were not treated equally in various political parties in Kenya. It was also found that in the last election in Kenya, women were not adequately considered in the manifesto pledges for political parties. The study recommends that the government as well as other law enforcement bodies should ensure that women and men are treated equally in terms fundamental human rights and freedom from discrimination.
- THE ROLE OF FAMILY STRUCTURE AND PARENTING ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF TEENAGE CHILDREN: THE CASE OF EMBAKASI CONSTITUENCY OF NAIROBI COUNTY
Authors: Ndung’u Jacqueline
Abstract: The family is usually the major source of the basic necessities which is made possible by the prevailing socio-economic, environmental and sometimes political conditions. However, the structure of family influences the provision of the basic needs to the adolescents and hence their school attendance and concentration in class. This study sought to examine the role of family structure and parenting on the academic performance of teenage children, to establish the types of family structure, to identify the characteristics of different types of family structure, to examine the relationship between family structure and school related activities among teenagers, to establish the effect of family structure on academic performance of teenagers and to examine how family structure in relation to socio-economic status influence the academic performance of teenagers. This research study used a descriptive research design. The target population of this study was 385 3rd year students and teachers in the four public secondary schools. In addition, this study used systematic sampling method to select 20 percent of the target population. The sample size of this study was 77 respondents and 8 teachers. The study used primary data which was collected by use of questionnaires; which included structured and unstructured questions. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of a data analysis software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS). The study also used correlation analysis to establish the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. The study found that there is an association between socio-economic status and parenting and academic performance of students in secondary schools. Family structure influences self-esteem, class concentration, parental support, school attendance and tardiness, parent-teenager relationship among teenagers. The study also revealed that school fees payments, healthy cognitive and social development and the provision of good uniform (clothing) influence the academic performance of the teenagers significantly. The various stakeholders in the education sector need to come up with strategies to identify various backgrounds of different students in their schools. This may enable them to understand clearly the nature of each student and thus being able to handle them with ease and appropriateness so as not to hamper the educational progress. In addition, there is also need for guidance and counseling processes in the public secondary schools. The main role of these counseling sessions may be to encourage and motivate the students to see beyond their limitations and put more focus on the future through persistence and determination in their education.
Authors: Ayiera Zablon Nyaenya, Prof Choge Emily, Prof Koech Joseph
Abstract: The nature of parenting globally is not only the cause of many society’s ills but also a key to positive change that determines the quality of the community. This is the case within traditional Gusii community, where parenting was systematically structured life cycle process as compared to the Christian church where empowerment of parents is minimal and without a systematically structured programme. This study presents strategy that combines both Christian teaching and practices with traditional Gusii teaching and practices on parenting, aimed at addressing increased anti-social ills in the present Gusii community. The paper examines the perceptions of the Christian church and traditional Gusii approach of equipping parents with quality parenting skills. The major role of the traditional Gusii community which was equipping parents with quality parenting skills should be carried out by the Christian church. The Christian church is viewed in this study as the alternative social institution that has the potential to create an enabling environment of equipping parents with quality parenting skills that will help reduce increased anti-social ills. This role that the church can play not only reduces anti-social ills but encourage support, care and protection of the disadvantaged children in the community. The church can serve as a conduit for the empowerment of parents and subsequently improve the quality of the community. The fundamental question addressed in this study is what the Christian church can do to address the challenge of increased antisocial behaviour among children in Gusii community. When children are well raised, parents are assured of peace and unity in families and the community. People will respect each other in the community. Parenting contributes greatly on addressing antisocial behaviour in the community. Thus this paper discuses and analyses how the church can make a significant contribution to equipping parents with quality parenting skills aimed at reducing anti-social ills in Gusii community and beyond. The emphasis of the paper is the importance of and the need for the Christian church to equip parents with quality parenting skills with a goal of reducing anti-social ills in Gusii community. Unless the Christian church addresses this important task, the community is headed to a social decay and disintegration. Empowering parents to competently guide children on moral values and provide them with basic needs will go a long way of reducing anti-social ills in Gusii Community. This paper is informed by data from Kisii and Nyamira county, which is home of the abagusii. Data was collected through interviews with informants of both Christian and traditional parenting who were selected purposefully.
- SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS INFLUENCING RE-INTEGRATION OF FEMALE PATIENTS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS INTO SOCIETY: A CASE OF MATHARI NATIONAL TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL
Authors: Valerie Achieng Ogambo, Dr. Vitalis Okoth-Odero, Mr. Michael Okuku
Abstract: Women with mental illness face far more challenges in the society than the male counterparts, taking into consideration they are considered the homemakers and have a lot of responsibilities in caring for home and nurturing children. The general objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic constraints influencing re-integration of female patients with mental illness into the society by focusing on Mathari National Teaching and Referral Hospital. The study used Durkheim’s anomie theory, which indicates that in the absence of strong social cohesion and strong social constraint in the form of norms, values, and morals, integration of people with mental illness. This study used mixed methods research and cross-sectional study design. The target population was 344 doctors, nurses, personal assistants, medical superintendent, social workers and visitors of the female patients. The sample size was 184 respondents, which was determined using Slovin's Formula. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents from the target population. The study also adopted purposive sampling to select the social workers and medical superintendent as the key informants. Primary data was used in this study and was collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and key informant interview guides. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean and Standard deviation. The data was then presented in tables and graphs. The study found that economic factors such as employment status and income levels have a positive influence on re-integration of female patients with mental illness. The study also found that while traditions, beliefs and community values influence re-integration of female patients with mental illness, ethnicity and religion had no significant influence. The study further found that community awareness about the need for reintegration of females with mental health challenges into society in Nairobi County was low. Also, the study also established existing state policies and programs regarding admission and discharge of female inmates of mental institutions in Kenya focus on admission of mentally ill individuals, power to take person suffering from mental disorder into custody and board’s powers of discharge patients. The study recommends that the government of Kenya as well as mental health facilities should provide skills to female patients to help them get jobs or start small business so as to improve their income levels after the leave health facilities. In addition, the government of Kenya should develop programmes and campaigns aimed at improving communities’ knowledge on the causes and treatment of mental illness.