Author: Chitere Emma

Abstract: The March 2013 elections in Kenya opened doors to massive political participation by women for the first time ever. Kenya’s constitution promulgamated in 2010 contains a provision that should radically change political representation for women in this East African country. This study sought to establish the role of the new constitution in influencing women to vie for the National Assembly seats in Nairobi County. The study also sought to establish ways though which the one-third gender rule, gender equality in political parties and equal right of opportunities influence women to vie for the National Assembly in Nairobi County. The target population for this study was all the registered voters in Nairobi County. There are 996,186 registered women voters in Nairobi County which was the study population. The sample size of this study was 100 respondents. Purposive sampling was used to select five key tribes in Kenya (in terms of numbers): Kikuyus, Luos, Kamba, Luhya and Kalenjin. Additionally, purposive sampling was used to select areas dominated by various ethnic groups. The researcher also used stratified random sampling to select 100 women in Nairobi County. The study was used primary data, which was collected by use of questionnaires and Key Informant Interviews guides. Quantitative data collected was analyzed by use descriptive statistics by the help of SPSS (V. 21.0) and presented through frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. This was done by tallying up responses, computing percentages of variations in response as well as describing and interpreting the data in line with the study objectives and assumptions. Data was then presented in tables, figures and charts. In addition, most of the women felt that the one-third gender rule was being followed though a good number of women felt that it was not being followed. Additionally, the study found that one-third gender rule influenced women to vie for political positions in the last general election. It was further established that equal treatment and opportunities between women and men had led to reaping of economic rewards on the basis of merit; improvement of quality of life; and the electoral and political processes to a moderate extent. Lastly, the study found that men and women were not treated equally in various political parties in Kenya. It was also found that in the last election in Kenya, women were not adequately considered in the manifesto pledges for political parties. The study recommends that the government as well as other law enforcement bodies should ensure that women and men are treated equally in terms fundamental human rights and freedom from discrimination.

Authors: Ndung’u Jacqueline

Abstract: The family is usually the major source of the basic necessities which is made possible by the prevailing socio-economic, environmental and sometimes political conditions. However, the structure of family influences the provision of the basic needs to the adolescents and hence their school attendance and concentration in class. This study sought to examine the role of family structure and parenting on the academic performance of teenage children, to establish the types of family structure, to identify the characteristics of different types of family structure, to examine the relationship between family structure and school related activities among teenagers, to establish the effect of family structure on academic performance of teenagers and to examine how family structure in relation to socio-economic status influence the academic performance of teenagers. This research study used a descriptive research design. The target population of this study was 385 3rd year students and teachers in the four public secondary schools. In addition, this study used systematic sampling method to select 20 percent of the target population. The sample size of this study was 77 respondents and 8 teachers. The study used primary data which was collected by use of questionnaires; which included structured and unstructured questions. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of a data analysis software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS). The study also used correlation analysis to establish the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. The study found that there is an association between socio-economic status and parenting and academic performance of students in secondary schools. Family structure influences self-esteem, class concentration, parental support, school attendance and tardiness, parent-teenager relationship among teenagers. The study also revealed that school fees payments, healthy cognitive and social development and the provision of good uniform (clothing) influence the academic performance of the teenagers significantly. The various stakeholders in the education sector need to come up with strategies to identify various backgrounds of different students in their schools. This may enable them to understand clearly the nature of each student and thus being able to handle them with ease and appropriateness so as not to hamper the educational progress. In addition, there is also need for guidance and counseling processes in the public secondary schools. The main role of these counseling sessions may be to encourage and motivate the students to see beyond their limitations and put more focus on the future through persistence and determination in their education.


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